Bankruptcy Isn't Easy ... or CheapEugene Johnson
Your car conks out and you need it to get to work. But you don't have any money to fix it.
Your credit cards are maxed out. You can't even cover minimum payments.
"Maybe it's time to go bankrupt and get a fresh start?" you think.
Well ... think again. Bankruptcy isn't an easy way out.
Bankruptcy is expensive, complicated, and irreversible. It's made even more expensive under the new law that took effect Oct. 17, 2005. The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 makes it harder for certain individuals to qualify for relief under a Chapter 7 bankruptcy.
Attorney's fees and court costs that ran $1,000 to $1,200 under the old law may jump another $400. Attorneys have more paperwork and must determine if you meet a "mean's test" to determine if debtors qualify to have some or all debts wiped away.
Debtors who earn more than a certain threshold for their area will need to qualify under the test.
Applicants who flunk the means test won't qualify for Chapter 7 discharge of debts. Instead, they'll be forced into a Chapter 13 three- or five-year repayment plan, notes Kathryn Greiner, director of credit education with First of Washtenaw, a subsidiary of the University of Michigan Credit Union in Ann Arbor.
"The bankruptcy trustee and your attorney collect fees under Chapter 13 repayment plans," she says.
Counseling requirements add more fees. The new law says each person has to complete a financial counseling session before applying for bankruptcy and a similar financial education session after filing.
One-on-one counseling runs $250 for a two- to four-hour session at First Washtenaw, which is a good deal, especially considering the credit union pays for it. Credit unions refer members who are in financial trouble (see "Find reliable counselors" sidebar).
Recognize hidden costs
In addition to direct costs, going bankrupt brings indirect costs.
"Short-term, bankruptcy looks like a good way to wipe the slate clean," but Ken King, executive director of the Consumer Credit Counseling Service in Sheboygan, Wis., cautions, "In the long-run, going bankrupt will cost you money. Here's why:
- "Say you have an 8% car loan. If bankruptcy forces you to return that car, you could wind up paying 18%, 30%, even 36% to buy another car, and you can't negotiate the car's price because you have no credit alternatives.
- "To buy a house, you'll [probably] need at least 20% down, and you can't get a conventional loan. That limits your choice of financial institutions. You get a two- or three-year balloon note, paying six to eight points more than the best mortgage rate. Six points on a $100,000 loan is $6,000 more a year or $500 more a month.
The first step is to do a budget analysis.
- "If your work requires you to travel, you need a credit card to book hotel rooms, pay for rental cars, and meals." Oh, you'll get a cardóbut you'll pay the very highest rates for it.
Greiner adds these examples:
- "If you rent, you may not get into a decent apartment because of your credit record. (A mother and two small children live in a dive because her attorney told her to go bankrupt when she got her divorce 'and start fresh.')
- "Potential employers can review your credit report, but the law requires they notify you in advance that your credit history will be reviewed.
- "Negative credit information can increase premiums for auto and homeowners insurance.
- "Once you file, bankruptcy is permanent. If you change your mind, the filing stays in the public record for up to 10 years."
Bankruptcy may not carry the stigma it once did, but it is a matter of public record. Some newspapers print the names of bankrupts. All creditors listed in the debtor's bankruptcy petition are informed when a person files.
And, there's the emotional trauma of explaining to a spouse or family members the depths of your financial problems leading you to consider bankruptcy.
The point is bankruptcy isn't the easy way out, and there are alternatives.
One-third of the people who seek help from a counseling service can manage things themselves, says the National Foundation for Credit Counseling (NFCC). Another third need the counseling service to help, and the final third need public assistance or bankruptcy relief.
Explore your options
The first step is to do a budget analysis. Total your take-home pay for a month. Subtract living expenses and loan payments. "Take stock of assets you could sell to settle debts as well as your ability to earn more money," Greiner advises.
"If you can budget and pay off your debts within three years, do it," says Cathy Moran, an attorney with the Moran Law Group, Mt. View, Calif. "If you can't, seek the help of a consumer credit counseling center, which can help negotiate a repayment plan."
Or negotiate for yourself. "Creditors are eager to work with people," says Greiner. "But there's a catch: If you call right away, the creditor might say, 'There's nothing I can do for you, you're current.'
"If you're three months or more behind, the big credit-card issuers have hardship programs that allow them to waive fees and lower interest rates," says Greiner. "You have a lot of negotiating power when you're past due."
"If your consumer debts [don't count mortgages] total between 50% and 150% of your annual income, repaying your debts in full isn't doable," says financial counselor Connie Kilmark, Kilmark & Associates, Madison, Wis.
She blames creditors for helping people get in trouble. "They make blanket credit card offers instead of looking at each borrower," she says. "So they should be willing to negotiate repayment plans.
"You get game points just for calling your creditors, especially if what you say is accurate, even if it's not good news," says Kilmark.
However, dealing with their collection agencies can be intimidating, so you may want a counseling service to go to bat for you. The NFCC-affiliated agencies in Wisconsin, for example, are all nonprofit and are licensed by the Wisconsin Department of Financial Institutions. Counseling fees in most cases are less than $25. The fee to establish repayment plans also is about $25 and about $20 a month to maintain the plan, depending on how many creditors are involved.
The fees are low because United Way provides support to several of the nonprofit counseling services in many states.
Nationally, NFCC member agencies charge about $15 for credit counseling, while some offer the services free. Debt management plans cost about $50 to set up and $25 a month to maintain. The Association of Independent Consumer Credit Counseling Agencies, which also represents nonprofit counselors, states maximum set-up fees are $75 and $50 for monthly maintenance.
These agencies also help debtors find public assistance programs for help with living expenses, medical bills, rent, and utilities.
Debtors also have the option to do nothing--if they're judgment proof [Social Security payments, for example]. That is, if your property is exempt from repossession, there's no reason to go bankrupt. You just stop paying. But understand that your credit rating is ruined in the process.
Greiner advised an elderly woman to do just that. The woman became disabled and had to stop working. She had no assets worth repossessing. Her sole income from Social Security barely covered the rent and groceries. Greiner explained her situation in a letter to creditors. A few creditors called to confirm her disability and stopped collecting. But a couple creditors dogged the poor woman for a long time.
"Bankruptcy should be your last resort, when all your other options have been exhausted," says Kilmark. "Occasionally, bankruptcy is a necessary shelter when you are forced to choose between your family's survival and paying creditors."